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Apoptosis Arrays

Introduction

Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death, involving a series of biochemical events leading to characteristic cell morphology changes and eventual cell death. Apoptosis is mediated by a diverse range of extracellular or intracellular signals, and is important in biological phenomena such as cell termination, homeostasis, and lymphocyte interactions. Additionally, apoptotic dysregulation has been implicated in many diseases such as coronary artery disease, HIV infections, and cancer. Following TNF or Fas signaling, a critical balance between pro-apoptotic molecules (Bax, Bid, Bak, or BAD) and anti-apoptotic molecules (Bcl-xL and Bcl-2) of the Bcl-2 family is established. The pro-apoptotic homodimers interact with the mitochondrial membranes to promote the release of caspase activators such as cytochrome c and Smac. Caspase molecules are cellular cysteine proteases that perform integral steps in the apoptotic and necrotic pathways. The initiator caspases function to cleave the pro-forms of executioner caspases into their active proteolytic forms. p53, the so called “Guardian of the Genome” also plays critical role in apoptosis, and is triggered by numerous cell stress events (eg, UV radiation, DNA breaks) to initiate cell death pathways. Disruption to the regulation of the p53 can result in impaired apoptosis, as is seen in some oncogenic situations. Recent reports have also shown the involvement of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in cellular proliferations and apoptosis, namely IGFBP-3 which has anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties.

RayBiotech provides a variety of assays to dissect apoptotic pathways. With the RayBio® Human Apoptosis Antibody Array, researchers can efficiently screen the expression levels of 43 apoptosis-related proteins. For detecting individual proteins or phosphorylated proteins, ELISA kits are available for many of the critical players in apoptosis, including p53, p27, HSP27, TRAIL, Bcl-w, BAD, cIAP-2, Smac/Diablo, and many more. Researchers can also choose from a variety of functional assays for detection of caspase and cathespin activity, annexin-V detection of phosphatidylserine (PS), and for signals of DNA fragmentation.

Each capture antibody is printed onto the membrane or glass slide. Treated or untreated cell lysate samples are added to the arrays. After extensive washing, a cocktail of biotin-conjugated anti-apoptotic antibody mix is used. Signals are visualized by chemiluminescene for membranes by incubation with HRP-Streptavidin, or by fluorescence with Cy3-Streptavidin for glass slide arrays.

 

RayBio® Human Apoptosis Arrays

C-Series Array

Human Apoptosis Signaling Array C1 (AAH-APOSIG-1)
C-Series Arrays - Semi-Quantitative, Sandwich-Based, Membrane Antibody Arrays
Detects 19 phosphorylated or cleaved human Apoptotic Factors:
Akt (P-Ser473) (PKB (P-Ser473)), ATM (P-Ser1981), BAD (P-Ser112), Caspase-3 (Cleaved Asp175), Caspase-7 (Cleaved Asp198), CHK1 (P-Ser296), CHK2 (P-Thr68), eIF-2a (P-Ser52), ERK1 (P-T202/Y204)/ERK2 (P-Y185/Y187), HSP27 (P-Ser82), IKBa (P-Ser32), JNK (P-Thr183/Tyr185), NFKBP65 (P-Ser536), PARP1 (Cleaved Asp214/Gly215), p27 (P-Thr198), P53 (P-Ser15), SMAD2 (P-Ser245/250/255), TAK1 (P-Ser412)
Manual 

 

C-Series Array

Human Apoptosis Array C1 (AAH-APO-1)
C-Series Arrays - Semi-Quantitative, Sandwich-Based, Membrane Antibody Arrays
Detects 43 Human Apoptotic Factors:
bad, bax, bcl-2, bcl-w, BID, BIM, Caspase 3, Caspase 8, CD40, CD40 Ligand, cIAP-2, Cytochrome-C, DR6, Fas, Fas Ligand, HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, HTRA, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5, IGFBP-6, IGF-1sR, livin, p21, p27, p53, SMAC, Survivin, sTNFRI, sTNFRII, TNF alpha, TNF beta, TRAIL R1, TRAIL R2, TRAIL R3, TRAIL R4, XIAP
Manual 

 

G-Series Array

Human Apoptosis Array G1 (AAH-APO-G1)
G-Series Arrays - Semi-Quantitative, Sandwich-Based, Glass Slide Antibody Arrays
Detects 43 Human Apoptotic Factors:
bad, bax, bcl-2, bcl-w, BID, BIM, Caspase 3, Caspase 8, CD40, CD40 Ligand, cIAP-2, Cytochrome-C, DR6, Fas, Fas Ligand, HSP27, HSP60, HSP70, HTRA, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, IGFBP-5, IGFBP-6, IGF-1sR, livin, p21, p27, p53, SMAC, Survivin, sTNFRI, sTNFRII, TNF alpha, TNF beta, TRAIL R1, TRAIL R2, TRAIL R3, TRAIL R4, XIAP
Manual 

 

Product Highlights

  • Relative level of 43 apoptosis–related markers are detected simultaneously
  • No need to perform individual immunoprecipitations or Western Blot
  • Reliable results with wide range of cell lines
  • High specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility
  • Membrane formats - No special equipment required
  • Glass slide formats - Fluorescent laser scanner is needed*
  • Many choices: chemiluminescence or fluorescence detection system; Membrane or glass chip
 

*Click here for a list of compatible laser scanners. Raybiotech now offers free glass slide scanning and data extraction services (click to learn more!).

 

How It Works

The principle of how an antibody array works

 

Reference List

  1. Balao da Silva CM, Ortega Ferrusola C, Morillo Rodriguez A, et al. Sex sorting increases the permeability of the membrane of stallion spermatozoa. Anim Reprod Sci. 2013 May;138(3-4):241?251.
    Species: horse
    Sample Type: Cell lysate

  2. Rahabi-Layachi H., et al. You have full text access to this content Distinct effects of inorganic phosphate on cell cycle and apoptosis in human vascular smooth muscle cells. J of Cell Phys. Accepted manuscript online: 27 JUN 2014. | DOI: 10.1002/jcp.24715
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates

  3. Spadavecchia S, Gonzalez-Lopez OD, Kyla Driscoll Carroll KD, Diana Palmeri D, Lukac DM. Convergence of KSHV Reactivation with EBV latency and cellular growth mediated by the Notch signaling pathway in co-infected cells. J Virol. 2010:84(20):10488?15000.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell lysate

  4. Downregulation of uPAR and Cathepsin B Induces Apoptosis via Regulation of Bcl-2 and Bax and Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt Pathway in Gliomas
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell lysate

  5. The Presence of HIV-1 Tat Second Exon Delays Fas-Mediated Apoptosis in CD4+ T lymphocytes: a Potential Mechanism for Persistent Viral Production
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell lysate
 

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