The HIF signaling pathway controls the effects of hypoxia on the cell. Hypoxia commonly prevents cells from differentiating. HIF-1 signaling is essential in immunological responses and is integral in regulating homeostasis and anaerobic metabolism. Hypoxia is also known to promote the formation of blood vessels, and HIF is also critical in vascular system formation in embryos. In wounds, hypoxia promotes repair of the epithelium through the relocation of keratinocytes. HIF-1 signaling plays a critical role in the regulation of human metabolism, but has also been implicated in cancer tumor vascularization and the pathophysiology of ischemic disease.
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