The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved system present in many multicellular organisms. Mammals are known to express four different notch receptors, called Notch1, Notch2, Notch3, and Notch4. Notch signaling is crucial in a wide array of developmental processes, including the regulation of neurogenesis, myogenesis, angiogenesis, hematopoiesis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and tissue homeostasis. The notch receptor is a transmembrane protein composed of a large extracellular domain that reversibly binds with an extracellular domain of Notch in a calcium-dependent manner. Aberrant Notch signaling leads to promotion of signaling events important in carcinogenesis and autoimmune diseases.
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