Post Translational Modifications

Diversifying our Proteome and Expanding the Functional Capabilities of Proteins

Following synthesis, the majority of proteins will experience modifications. Named for the chronology, these Post-Translational Modifications (PTMs) play a pivotal role in regulating stability, localization, function, and molecular interactions and are responsible for the comparative complexity of the proteome. Over 200 different PTMs have been identified, with the most widely researched being phosphorylation, glycosylation, acetylation, methylation, nitrosylation, acylation, and ubiquitylation. These enzyme-mediated alterations occur at distinct amino acid side chains or peptide linkages and enable the cell to regulate and fine-tune its biological processes. Identifying and understanding these significant mechanisms is critical to the study of basic cell biology as well as in disease pathogenesis.

RayBiotech's suite of PTM profiling tools includes easy-to-use antibody arrays to screen up to 1000 target proteins for acetylation, palmitoylation, oxidation, glycosylation, or phosphorylation signatures. Additionally, RayBio PTM ELISAs can probe a wide variety of individual signaling events with an efficient, western blot-free workflow. Need extra bandwidth? Any of these assays can be combined into a customized proteomic service to screen and validate protein modifications.


Phosphorylation is a crucial mechanism in biological systems that regulates many cellular processes involved in growth, apoptosis, and signal transduction. It involves the transfer of a gamma-phosphate to specific amino acids such as serine, threonine, or tyrosine. For a significant number of proteins, phosphorylation is linked with protein activity and is essential to their functionality. Dysregulation of phosphorylation is implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders. Abnormal activation or inactivation of specific kinases or phosphatases can result in aberrant signaling pathways, leading to uncontrolled cell growth or impaired cellular function. Therefore, understanding the complex network of phosphorylation events in cells is crucial for developing targeted therapies to treat these diseases.

To aid detection of the phospho-proteome, RayBiotech offers phospho-specific antibody arrays in which up to 1000 proteins can be screened simultaneously. Alternatively, targeted array panels and phosphorylation ELISAs are available to probe specific signaling pathways related to DNA damage, inflammation, tumorigenesis, and many other processes. Our repertoire of phosphorylation immunoassays features rapid, efficient protocols for high throughput data collection, empowering the researcher with precise, highly sensitive verification of pathway activation, detection of phosphorylation signatures, or enhancement of mass spectrophotometric protein analysis.

Browse Phosphorylation Products

Phosphorylation is a highly reversible state, enabling rapid modulation of cellular activity. The addition and removal of phosphoryl groups to proteins is catalyzed by kinases and phosphatases, respectively.


Glycosylation is a fundamental process of the biosynthetic-secretory pathway of the ER and Golgi apparatus, involving the addition of sugar moieties to specific amino acids. This modification occurs in over half of all expressed proteins and can be categorized into groups based on the amino acid that links to the carbohydrate chain (N-, O-, C-). Each protein has the ability to be glycosylated at multiple sites, potentially with different linkages, enhancing the diversity of the proteome in a way that cannot be achieved by any other post-translational modification. Factors such as enzyme availability, amino acid sequence, and protein conformation all play a role in how glycosylation occurs. Abnormal glycosylation patterns can serve as markers for certain disease states, including cancer metastasis, diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and many other autoimmune conditions.

This diverse structure and complex composition also makes glycoproteins more difficult to analyze, and detection tools for glycobiology research are in limited supply. To address this challenge, RayBiotech has developed three different formats of glycobiology arrays utilizing microarray technology. The Glycan arrays, Glycome Arrays, and Lectin Arrays all utilize glass slide supports with fluorescent detection and serve as powerful tools for researchers to detect glycans and/or glycan-protein interactions.

Browse Glycosylation Products

Glycan Array Glycome Array Lectin Array
Immobilized Molecule Sugar Moieties (glycans) Antibodies Lectins
Species Detected Not species specific Human, Mouse, Rat Not species specific
Spot Replicates Quadruplicate/Triplicate Duplicate Duplicate
Number of Targets 100 or 300 up to 1000 75 or 95

RayBiotech has developed 3 different formats of glycobiology profiling arrays to help researchers detect glycans and/or glycan-protein interactions. All 3 formats feature glass slide supports with fluorescent detection.


Protein acetylation is a biochemical process whereby a lysine residue on a protein is modified through the addition of an acetyl group. This modification has significant implications for the structure and function of the protein. Initially identified on histones, acetylation increases the size of the side chain, attenuates the amino group's positive charge, and elevates the protein's hydrophobicity. The effects on DNA binding, enzymatic activity, protein-protein interactions, and protein degradation are far-reaching. Acetylation can stimulate gene expression by loosening the chromatin structure and rendering DNA more accessible to transcription factors and other regulatory proteins. Disrupted acetylation has been linked to various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative conditions, and metabolic disorders.

RayBio® Human Protein Acetylation Antibody Arrays are designed for identifying the relative levels of acetylation of lysine in up to 1,000 different human proteins in cell lysate. Cell lysate is introduced into the wells of the antibody array glass slide. Then, a biotinylated anti-acetylated-lysine antibody is used to detect acetylated-lysine on target proteins. After incubation with a fluorescent dye-conjugated streptavidin, the slides are imaged using a laser scanner.

Browse Acetylation Products


Protein acylation plays a significant role in cell signaling, development, and growth by covalently modifying proteins with lipids. This modification involves the addition of an acyl group, usually a fatty acid, to an amino acid residue. This changes the protein from hydrophilic to hydrophobic at one end, making it easier to interact with membranes. Protein acylation is a crucial aspect of many cellular processes relevant to physiology and diseases such as stability, localization, protein-protein interactions, and protein-DNA interactions. Furthermore, acylation plays a regulatory role in insulin secretion and insulin response pathways. Palmitoylation, the most extensively studied acyl modification, involves the addition of palmitate (a 16-carbon fatty acid) to a cysteine, and occasionally a threonine or serine residue. Unlike other acylation events, protein palmitoylation is reversible. The rapid and dynamic cycling between palmitoylation and de-palmitoylation plays an important role in membrane anchoring and trafficking between intracellular compartments.

RayBio® Human Protein S-Acylation Antibody Arrays are designed for identifying the relative levels of S-acylation of cysteine in up to 1,000 different human proteins in various biological samples. The kits use a modified biotin-switch method to label the samples, wherein the biotin-labeled samples are added to antibody arrays, washed, and incubated with a fluorescent dye-conjugated streptavidin for imaging using a laser scanner. The arrays provide a quick and efficient way to monitor changes in protein S-acylation in experimental model systems.

Browse Acylation Products


Enzymatic production of nitric oxide (NO) is widespread in cells and tissues. S-nitrosylation is a covalent modification that involves binding a nitric oxide-derived group to the thiol group of cysteine. This process is a vital component of various critical cellular mechanisms, including the regulation of ion channel activity, membrane trafficking, apoptosis, and other post-translational modifications, as well as the maintenance of cellular redox equilibrium. In recent years, it has become clear that dysregulation of S-nitrosylation also contributes to the development of various diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, cancer, sickle cell disease, and asthma.

RayBio® Human Protein S-Nitrosylation Antibody Arrays are designed for identifying the relative levels of S-Nitrosylation of cysteine in up to 1,000 different human proteins in various biological samples. The kits use a modified biotin-switch method to label the proteins in the sample. The biotin-labeled samples are then added to antibody arrays, washed, and incubated with a fluorescent dye-conjugated streptavidin for imaging using a laser scanner. The arrays provide a quick and efficient way to monitor changes in protein S-Nitrosylation in experimental model systems.

Browse Nitrosylation Products

Related Products