Human GDF-15 ELISA

RayBio® Human GDF-15 ELISA Kit for cell culture supernatants, plasma, and serum samples.

Lead time: Typically ships within 1-2 business days. No Friday shipments.


Assay Format

Detection Range:
2 pg/ml - 800 pg/ml
Recommended Dilution (serum & plasma):
3 - 30 fold
2 pg/ml

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This ELISA kit shows no cross-reactivity with the following cytokines tested: human Angiogenin, BDNF, BLC, CNTF, ENA- 78, FGF-4, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-9, IL-11, IL-12 p70, IL-12 p40, IL-13, IL-15, I-309, IP-10, FGF-4, FGF-6, FGF- 7, G-CSF, GDNF, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-4, Leptin (OB), MCP-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, MDC, MIF, MIG, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, MIP-1 delta, PARC, PDGF, RANTES, SCF, SDF-1 alpha, TARC, TGF-beta, TIMP-1, TIMP-2, TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, TPO, VEGF.
Number of Targets Detected:
Species Detected:
  • Human
Compatible Sample Types:
  • Cell Culture Supernatants
  • Plasma
  • Serum
Design Principle:
  • Sandwich-based
Method of Detection:
  • Quantitative
Solid Support:
96-well Microplate

Product Specifications

1, 2, or 5 x 96-Well Strip Microplate Kit

Protein Information

Accession Number:
  • Q99988
Gene ID:
  • 9518
Gene Symbols:
  • GDF15
  • MIC1
  • PDF
  • PLAB
Protein Name & Synonyms:
Growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) (Macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1) (MIC-1) (NSAID-activated gene 1 protein) (NAG-1) (NSAID-regulated gene 1 protein) (NRG-1) (Placental TGF-beta) (Placental bone morphogenetic protein) (Prostate differentiation factor)
Target Species:
  • Human

Target Background

Growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) is a divergent member of the TGF-β superfamily of proteins (aliases: MIC-1, NAG-1, pTGFB, PDF and PLAB). Mature GDF-15 is released as a homodimer where each dimer is 25 kDa. The expression of GDF-15 is most prominent in the placenta, followed by the prostrate. Outside of the reproductive organs, it shows low constitutive expression, however, expression can be induced by stress. Cell types that produce GDF-15 include, cardiomyocytes, adipocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. As a stress-induced cytokine, it is regulated by inflammation and stress-related proteins. The effects of GDF-15 are seen during tissue injury, metabolic conditions, pregnancy (immune tolerance) and various cancers.

Product Features

Additional Notes
  • Strip plates and additional reagents allow for use in multiple experiments
  • Quantitative protein detection
  • Establishes normal range
  • The best products for confirmation of antibody array data

Standard Curves

Spiking & Recovery Results

Linearity Results

Application Notes

Kit Components
  • Pre-Coated 96-well Strip Microplate
  • Wash Buffer
  • Stop Solution
  • Assay Diluent(s)
  • Lyophilized Standard
  • Biotinylated Detection Antibody
  • Streptavidin-Conjugated HRP
  • TMB One-Step Substrate
Other Materials Required
  • Distilled or deionized water
  • Precision pipettes to deliver 2 µl to 1 µl volumes
  • Adjustable 1-25 µl pipettes for reagent preparation
  • 100 µl and 1 liter graduated cylinders
  • Tubes to prepare standard and sample dilutions
  • Absorbent paper
  • Microplate reader capable of measuring absorbance at 450nm
  • Log-log graph paper or computer and software for ELISA data analysis
Protocol Outline
  1. Prepare all reagents, samples and standards as instructed in the manual.
  2. Add 100 µl of standard or sample to each well.
  3. Incubate 2.5 h at RT or O/N at 4°C.
  4. Add 100 µl of prepared biotin antibody to each well.
  5. Incubate 1 h at RT.
  6. Add 100 µl of prepared Streptavidin solution to each well.
  7. Incubate 45 min at RT.
  8. Add 100 µl of TMB One-Step Substrate Reagent to each well.
  9. Incubate 30 min at RT.
  10. Add 50 µl of Stop Solution to each well.
  11. Read at 450 nm immediately.

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The entire kit may be stored at -20°C for up to 1 year from the date of shipment. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The kit may be stored at 4°C for up to 6 months. For extended storage, it is recommended to store at -80°C.
  1. Cai D, Xu Y, Ding R, Qiu K, Zhang R, Wang H, Huang L, Xie X, Yan H, Deng Y, Lin X, Shao J, Luo X, Duan C. Extensive serum biomarker analysis in patients with non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Cytokine. 2020 Feb;126:154868. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2019.154868. Epub 2019 Oct 16. PMID: 31629110.
    Species: Human
    Sample type: Serum
  2. Hussain S, Habib A, Hussain MS, Najmi AK. Potential biomarkers for early detection of diabetic kidney disease. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Mar;161:108082. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2020.108082. Epub 2020 Feb 11. PMID: 32057966.
    Species: Human
    Sample type: Plasma
  3. Willy K., Girndt M., Voelkl J., et al. Expanded Haemodialysis Therapy of Chronic Haemodialysis Patients Prevents Calcification and Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in vitro. Blood Purif. 2018;45(1-3):131-138. doi: 10.1159/000484925.
    Species: Human
    Sample type: Conditioned media
  4. Wu T., Ding H., Han J., et al. Antibody-Array-Based Proteomic Screening of Serum Markers in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Discovery Study. J Proteome Res. 2016 Jul 1;15(7):2102-14. doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00905.
    Species: Human
    Sample type: Serum
  5. Lancrajan I., Schenieder-Stock R., Naschberger E., et al. Absolute quanti?cation of DcR3 and GDF15 from human serum y LC-ESI MS. J Cell Mol Med. 2015 Jul;19(7):1656-71. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12540.
    Species: Human
    Sample type: Serum
  6. Ilhan H., Bilgin A., Toylu A., et al. The Expression of GDF-15 in the Human Vitreous in the Presence of Retinal Pathologies with an Inflammatory Component. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2016 Apr;24(2):178-83. doi: 10.3109/09273948.2014.981549.
    Species: Human
    Sample type: Vitreous Fluid
  7. Xu X., Nie Y., Wang FF., et al. Growth differentiation factor (GDF)-15 blocks norepinephrine-induced myocardial hypertrophy via a novel pathway involving inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation. J Biol Chem. 2014 Apr 4;289(14):10084-94. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.516278.
    Species: Human
    Sample type: Serum
  8. Barderas R, Mendes M, Torres S, et al. In-depth characterization of the secretome of colorectal cancer metastatic cells identifies key proteins in cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;2013;12(6):1602-1620.
    Species: Human
    Sample type: Serum
  9. Li J, Yang L, Qin W, Zhang G, Yuan J, Wang F. Adaptive Induction of Growth Differentiation Factor 15 Attenuates Endothelial Cell Apoptosis in Response to High Glucose Stimulus. PLoS ONE. 8(6): e65549. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0065549
    Species: Human
    Sample type: Conditioned Media
  10. Athiyarath, Rekha, Alok Srivastava, and Eunice Sindhuvi Edison. "Molecular basis of primary iron overload in India and the role of serum-derived factors in hepcidin regulation." Annals of hematology (2013): 1-2.
    Species: Human
    Sample type: Serum

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