Human Ghrelin EIA

$376.00
EIA-GHR-1

RayBio® Human/Mouse/Rat Ghrelin EIA Kit optimized for serum and cell culture medium. Competition-based ELISA on a 96-well strip plate.

Introduction

Obesity, which is characterized by excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the body, has become one of the greatest public health challenges. Obesity is not only associated with health problems linked to increased weight-dependent pressure overload on lung, joints and bones, but also a important risk factor for life-threatening diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers.

Ghrelin is synthesized as a preprohormone, and then proteolytically processed to yield a 28-amino acid peptide. Synthesis of ghrelin occurs predominantly in epithelial cells lining the fundus of the stomach, with smaller amounts produced in the placenta, kidney, pituitary and hypothalamus.

Ghrelin has emerged as the first circulating hunger hormone. Ghrelin increases food intake and thus fat mass by an action exerted at the level of the hypothalamus. They activate cells in the arcuate nucleus that include the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons. Ghrelin-responsiveness of these neurons is both leptin and insulin sensitive. Ghrelin also activates the mesolimbic cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link, a circuit that communicates the hedonic and reinforcing aspects of natural rewards, such as food.

Ghrelin levels in the plasma of obese individuals are lower than those in leaner individuals except in the case of Prader-Willi syndrome-induced obesity. Those suffering from the eating disorder anorexia nervosa have high plasma levels of ghrelin compared to both the constitutionally thin and normal-weight controls. These findings suggest that ghrelin plays a role in both anorexia and obesity. Ghrelin levels are also high in patients who have cancer-induced cachexia.

Product Features

  • Strip plates and additional reagents allow for use in multiple experiments
  • Quantitative protein detection
  • Establishes normal range
  • The best products for confirmation of antibody array data

Specificity

The capture antibody provided in this kit recognizes human, mouse and rat Ghrelin.

Target Protein Information

Synonyms
Appetite-regulating hormone (Growth hormone secretagogue) (Growth hormone-releasing peptide) (Motilin-related peptide) (Protein M46) [Cleaved into: Ghrelin-28 (Ghrelin) (GHR)]
Accession Number
Gene Names
GHRL MTLRP UNQ524/PRO1066
Gene ID
51738

Application Notes

Kit Components
  • Pre-Coated 96-well Strip Microplate
  • Wash Buffer
  • Standard Peptide
  • Assay Diluent(s)
  • Biotinylated Peptide
  • HRP-Streptavidin
  • TMB One-Step Substrate
  • Stop Solution
  • Assay Diagram
  • Positive Control Sample
  • Capture Antibody
  • User Manual
Other Materials Required
  • Distilled or deionized water
  • Precision pipettes to deliver 2 µl to 1 ml volumes
  • Adjustable 1-25 ml pipettes for reagent preparation
  • 100 ml and 1 liter graduated cylinders
  • Tubes to prepare standard and sample dilutions
  • Orbital shaker
  • Aluminum foil
  • Saran Wrap
  • Absorbent paper
  • Microplate reader capable of measuring absorbance at 450nm
  • SigmaPlot software (or other software that can perform four-parameter logistic regression models)
Protocol Outline
  • Prepare all reagents, samples and standards as instructed.
  • Add 100 µl detection antibody to each well.
  • Incubate 1.5 h at RT or O/N at 4°C.
  • Add 100 µl standard or sample to each well.
  • Incubate 2.5 h at RT.
  • Add 100 µl prepared streptavidin solution.
  • Incubate 45 min at RT.
  • Add 100 µl TMB One-Step Substrate Reagent to each well.
  • Incubate 30 min at RT.
  • Add 50 µl Stop Solution to each well.
  • Read plate at 450 nm immediately.
  • Storage/Stability

    Standard, Biotinylated Ghrelin (GHR) peptide, and Positive Control should be stored at -20°C after arrival. Avoid multiple freeze-thaws. The remaining kit components may be stored at 4°C. Opened Microplate Wells and antibody (Item N) may be stored for up to 1 month at 2° to 8°C. Return unused wells to the pouch containing desiccant pack and reseal along entire edge.

    Antigen Information

    Gene Symbol:
    • GHRL

    Product Specifications

    Size:
    1, 2, or 5 x 96-Well Strip Microplate Kit

    Array/ELISA Format

    Species Detected:
    • Human
    • Mouse
    • Rat
    Solid Support:
    96-well Microplate
    Design Principle:
    • Competition-based
    Quantitative/Semi-Quantitative:
    Quantitative
    Method of Detection:
    Colorimetric
    Compatible Sample Types:
    • Serum
    • Cell Culture Supernatants

    1. Jambocus G., Saari N., Ismail A., et al. An Investigation into the Antiobesity Effects of Morinda citrifolia L. Leaf Extract in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats Using a (1)H NMR Metabolomics Approach.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Plasma

    2. Ozcan M., Ozturk G., Kose M., et al. Evaluation of malnutrition with blood ghrelin and fecal elastase levels in acute decompensated heart failure patients. Türk Kardiyol Dern Arş - Arch Turk Soc Cardiol 2015;43(2):131-137 doi: 10.5543/tkda.2015.06606
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum

    3. Dang R., Jiang P., Cai H., et al. Vitamin D deficiency exacerbates atypical antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effects in rats: involvement of the INSIG/SREBP pathway. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 Aug;25(8):1239-47. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2015.04.028.
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Serum

    4. Dorofeyev AE, Perederiy VG, Kugler TE (2015) Do APUD Peptides Play a Role in the Pathogenesis of functional Dyspepsia? J Gastric Disord Ther 1 (1): doi http://dx.doi. org/10.16966/2381-8689.103
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma

    5. Han J., Kim H., Lee J., Choi M., Kim Y., Son C. Repeated Sense of Hunger Leads to the Development of Visceral Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in a Mouse Model . PLOS One Published: May 30, 2014. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098276
      Species: Rat
      Sample Type: Serum

    6. Liu R., Ma D., Li Y., Hu R., Peng Y., Wang Q. The anorexic effect of Ex4/Fc through GLP-1 receptor activation in high-fat diet fed mice. Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica. Epub Ahead of Print 2014. DOI: 10.1093/abbs/gmu044.
      Species: Mouse
      Sample Type: Serum

    7. Ma X., Zhao Y., Wang Q., Wu L., Wang Z., et al. Plasma Ghrelin Concentrations Are Negatively Correlated With Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes. The American Journal of Medical Sciences 2014 June. Epub Ahead of Print. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0000000000000297
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma

    8. Polat Z., et al. Plasma Ghrelin Levels in Patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. June 2012, Volume 57, Issue 6, pp 1660-1663.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum

    9. Turkoglu A., Boyuk A., Tanriverdi MH., et al. The potential role of BMI, plasma leptin, nesfatin-1 and ghrelin levels in the early detection of pancreatic necrosis and severe acute pancreatitis: A prospective cohort study. Int J Surg. 2014 Dec;12(12):1310-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.10.040
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma

    10. Ulger BV., Gul M., Uslukaya O., et al. New hormones to predict the severity of gallstone-induced acute pancreatitis. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2014 Dec;25(6):714-7. doi: 10.5152/tjg.2014.6201.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma

    11. Wysokinski A., Kowalski M., Kloszewska I. Serum levels of desacyl ghrelin in patients with schizophrenia on clozapine monotherapy Accepted manuscript online: 28 APR 2014 09:37PM EST | DOI: 10.1111/pcn.12199 [Epub Ahead of Print]
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum

    12. Zhang S., et al. Ghrelin and obestatin plasma levels and ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide gene polymorphisms in small for gestational age infants. Journal of International Medical Research published online 15 September 2014. DOI: 10.1177/0300060514533525
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Plasma

    13. Cobanoglu N., Dalkan C., Galip N., et al. Is calprotectin a marker of tobacco smoke related inflammation?: a pilot study in children. Inhal Toxicol. 2012 Jul;24(8):486-91. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2012.693137.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum

    14. Polat Z., Kilciler G., Ozel A., et al. Plasma ghrelin levels in patients with familial Mediterranean fever. Dig Dis Sci. 2012 Jun;57(6):1660-3. doi: 10.1007/s10620-012-2049-z.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Serum

    15. Fung JN., et al. Expression and In Vitro Functions of the Ghrelin Axis in Endometrial Cancer. Horm Cancer. 2010 Oct;1(5):245-55. doi: 10.1007/s12672-010-0047-1.
      Species: Human
      Sample Type: Cell Lysate

    16. Plum L., et al. The Obesity Susceptibility Gene Carboxypeptidase E Links FoxO1 Signaling in Hypothalamic Pro-opiomelanocortin Neurons with Regulation of Food Intake. Nat Med. 2009 Oct;15(10):1195-201. doi: 10.1038/nm.2026
      Species: Mouse
      Sample Type: Serum

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    Usage

    This product is furnished for LABORATORY RESEARCH USE ONLY.
    Not for diagnostic or therapeutic use.

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