Infectious diseases are transmitted from person-to-person or from animals to humans. The diseases are caused by bacteria and viruses, and cause an immune response that is often characterized by inflammation. These pathogens can be transmitted by air, physical contact, or touching an item that an infected person has touched. Infectious diseases can become an epidemic if there is a sudden increase in cases, or a pandemic if the disease infects many people across several continents. Also known as communicable diseases, infectious diseases are defined by a value called R-naught (R0) to gauge how severe an outbreak may be. The R0 reflects how many people a single infected person is likely to infect.
RayBiotech also has a large catalog of ELISA kits, other antibody arrays, and flow cytometry reagents for infectious disease research. Full testing services are available for all RayBiotech products, including flow cytometry.
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Johne's disease, a chronic wasting disease in ruminants that is economically devastating to the dairy and beef industries, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Park et al. explored the immune response to MAP infection through genomic and proteomic profiling using an epithelial passage model, which mimics the initial stage of infection. Their data suggest that 1) epithelial processing of MAP might induce prolonged T17 activation and 2) MAP survives in immune cells by modulating host lipid metabolism and switching off intracellular killing pathways.
Park HT, et al. Epithelial processed Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis induced prolonged Th17 response and suppression of phagocytic maturation in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Scientific reports (2020). [view publication]
RayBiotech Products: Sandwich ELISA (cat no. ELB-IL17A)
Species: Bovine (cow)
Sample Type: Conditioned medium
Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SaB) has a mortality rate of 25%. In this study, serum samples from patients recently diagnosed with SaB were analyzed with proteomic and metabolomic techniques to identify prognostic biomarkers for improved patient care. The results, in part, revealed that mortality was associated with metabolic dysfunction and a 5-protein signature (IL-6, TGF-b1, TNF, IL-1b, IL-10); the signature was validated by an orthogonal approach.
Wozniak JM, et al. Mortality Risk Profiling of Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia by Multi-omic Serum Analysis Reveals Early Predictive and Pathogenic Signatures. Cell (2020). [view publication]
RayBiotech Products: Sandwich ELISA (cat no. ELH-FetuinB, ELH-IGFBP3, ELH-SERPIND1)
Sample Type: Serum
During infection, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) breaches the intestinal wall. Using mice, Drolia et al. show that the Listeria adhesion protein (LAP) promotes bacterial translocation by upregulating the pro-inflammatory NF-κB canonical signaling pathway and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6), which leads to increased epithelial permeability. Moreover, bioengineered probiotics that express LAP competitively exclude Lm from entering intestinal cells and increases intestinal immunomodulatory functions by recruiting FOXP3+T cells, CD11c+ dendritic cells and natural killer cells.
Drolia R., et al. Listeria Adhesion Protein Induces Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction for Bacterial Translocation. Cell Host Microbe (2018). [view publication]
RayBiotech Products: C-Series (cat no. AAH-INF-3)
Sample Type: Conditioned Medium
Drolia R, et al. Receptor-targeted engineered probiotics mitigate lethal Listeria infection. Nat Commun (2020). [view publication]
RayBiotech Products: Sandwich ELISA (cat no. ELM-TNFa, ELM-IL6, ELM-IFNg)
Sample Type: Tissue lysate
Timely and effective triaging of patients with a fever will reduce infection-related morbidity and mortality, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. While a clinical scoring system exists (e.g., GCS), it has demonstrated only modest prognostic accuracy and limited sensitivity at identifying patients at a higher risk of mortality. Since the host response is known to play an important role in disease severity, the authors profiled circulating cytokines in plasma of fever patients. By combining GCS with sTREM-1, the 2- and 28-day mortality sensitivity was 100% and 90.6%, respectively, while the specificity was 86.0% and 87.4%, respectively. The accuracy of this prognostic classification model is a vast improvement over using GCS alone, which had a 2- and 28-day mortality sensitivity of 55.6% and 43.8%, respectively, and a specificity of 97.6% and 99.4%, respectively.
Richard-Greenblatt M, et al. Prognostic Accuracy of Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (sTREM-1)-based Algorithms in Febrile Adults Presenting to Tanzanian Outpatient Clinics. Clin Infect Dis. (2020). [view publication]
RayBiotech Products: Protein (cat no. 230-00041)
Sample Type: Plasma