ELISA vs. Immuno-PCR vs. SIMOA: Comparison of Protein Detection Tools

ELISA vs. Immuno-PCR vs. SIMOA: Comparison of Protein Detection Tools

Introduction ELISA, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is the “gold standard” method for protein detection.1 In this blog, three popular ELISA platforms are reviewed: standard ELISA, immuno-PCR, and single molecule array (SIMOA). These ELISAs will be compared regarding their design principles, sample volumes, instruments, and sensitivities. How ELISA works The basic…

Multiplex Protein Detection with Antibody Arrays

Multiplex Protein Detection with Antibody Arrays

Introduction A microarray is an assay that enables the simultaneous detection of multiple molecules, such as nucleic acids, peptides, proteins, or antibodies. They are called “micro”-arrays because the analytes are measured within a small surface area; for example, thousands of molecules can be analyzed on a standard glass slide (75…

5 Steps for Writing a Research Paper

5 Steps for Writing a Research Paper

Introduction Publications are the cornerstone of science. They disseminate data that expand our understanding of the world around us (and beyond!) and help secure funding for additional studies. However, most manuscripts do not pass the journal’s initial editorial process. Here, we review the editorial process and provide 5 steps for…

COVID-19 Research Tools 101

COVID-19 Research Tools 101

Introduction The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 virus. [1] Some infected individuals are asymptomatic while others experience very severe symptoms that can result in death (Figure 1). [2] More specifically, those over 55 years old or have underlying conditions are especially vulnerable to developing…

7 Ways to Study Protein Phosphorylation

7 Ways to Study Protein Phosphorylation

Introduction Protein phosphorylation is the most well-studied post translational modification (PTM), in which a phosphoryl group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is covalently attached to a serine (~86%), threonine (~12%), or tyrosine (~2%) by a kinase and removed by a phosphatase (Figure 1). [1] Phosphorylation at other amino acids have also…

Recombinant Proteins in Research

Recombinant Proteins in Research

Introduction Proteins play an integral role in human health. As such, basic, applied, and clinical research aim to understand how protein expression, localization, post translational modifications (PTMs), and interactions regulate homeostasis and disease (see yellow box). Our current understanding of how proteins affect cellular phenotype is based on numerous applications,…

A Comparison of Antibody Arrays and Mass Spectrometry in Protein Profiling and Biomarker Research

A Comparison of Antibody Arrays and Mass Spectrometry in Protein Profiling and Biomarker Research

Highlights Antibody arrays: removal of high abundance proteins is not required, but antibody availability limits protein detection. Mass spectrometry: “hypothesis-free” protein detection is affected by high abundance proteins and peptide ionization. Both high throughput technologies are capable of semi-quantitative and quantitative data. Antibody arrays and mass spectrometry complement each other.…