Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling plays a key role tissue homeostasis, which is accomplished through dynamic regulation of many cellular processes, including cell growth, migration, differentiation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and extracellular matrix remodeling. Generally, signaling is initiated with the phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic Smad signaling molecules, which results in their translocation to the nucleus where they modulate transcription. TGF-βs are often overexpressed in many disease states such as fibrosis, inflammation, and cancer.
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