Antibodies are generated by the immune system in response to a threat, like a virus or bacteria. The produced antibodies fight infection and are typically detectable approximately 1-3 weeks after infection. While no exact data is available for SARS-CoV-2, evidence suggests that the presence of these antibodies can decrease infectiousness and provide a degree of immunity for future infection. RayBiotech offers a comprehensive list of research tools for COVID-19 antibody detection and characterization.
Antibody detection screening assays are used to:
An indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (iELISA) is the most common technique for determining total antibody concentrations in a sample. This method is commonly utilized to diagnose infection and to quantify antibodies against the invading antigen. In this method, a sample containing the primary antibody is incubated with an antigen-coated plate. Next, a labeled anti-human detection antibody that recognizes the primary antibody is added. A secondary antibody is then added, and when combined with a substrate, produces a signal amplification.
Detect multiple antibody isotypes and epitope-binding specificity with a multiplex protein array. A protein microarray can detect Identify the presence of multiple peptides representing a single protein, including several positive and negative controls. In this method, the sample is incubated on the array and the IgG or IgM antibodies present will bind to their specific peptide epitope. After washing unbound antibodies, the arrays are incubated with a biotin-conjugated anti-human IgG or IgM. Bound antibodies are then incubated with a fluorescence dye conjugated streptavidin to visualize the amount of immobilized antibody. Because each spot on the array represents a known unique peptide, the presence of the antibody itself and the epitope-specificity within the SARS-CoV-2 protein can be simultaneously determined.
Antibody characterization screening assays determine if the antibodies present can inhibit cell binding, are neutralizing, or suitable for vaccine development.
COVID-19 binding assays enable rapid, high throughput, and in vitro screening of potential inhibitors of Spike-receptor complexes that facilitate SARS-CoV-2 viral entry. These enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) use a 96-well plate and produce a colorimetric read-out for easy data interpretation.
The safety requirements for handling the SARS-CoV-2 virus for study can prevent analysis by those who do not have the capability, hindering therapeutic and vaccine development. A pseudovirus system is an alternative, cell-based approach to study SARS-CoV-2 neutralization in cell culture outside a BSL-3 or BSL-4 level laboratory. This system is quantifiable and rapid. It is ideal for screening for neutralizing antibodies, investigation of receptor interactions, viral inhibition pathways, and COVID-19 vaccine development and evaluation.