The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)/Rel family members function as dimeric transcription factors that play important roles in regulating the expression of cytokines, growth factors, and inhibitors of apoptosis. Two signaling pathways lead to the activation of NF-κB, known as the classical (canonical) pathway and the alternative (non-canonical) pathway. Activation of this pathway influences a broad range of biological processes including immunity, inflammation, stress responses, B-cell development, and lymphoid organogenesis. Additionally, NF-κB also plays a role in the development and activity of a number of tissues including the central nervous system. The dysregulation of NF-κB signaling is linked to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition to inflammatory diseases, constitutive activation of this pathway is involved in asthma as well as many forms of cancer such as leukemia, lymphoma, colon and ovarian cancer.
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