The protein kinase C pathway regulates numerous cellular responses including cell proliferation, differentiation, gene expression, protein secretion, cell polarity and death, and also plays a key role in the cardiac system, nervous system, and the inflammatory response. The PKC family is divided into three groups: classical, novel, and atypical. The function of PKC is regulated by two mechanisms, including 1) activation by phosphorylation which localizes the protein to the cytosol and 2) the binding of a ligand which activated the enzyme by freeing the substrate-binding site. Because of their role in regulating cellular signaling, the PKC pathway is implicated in multiple disease states such as metabolic disorders, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, and immune and inflammatory diseases.
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