Spike Protein Variants

The virus responsible for COVID-19 is the severe acute coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2. As new SARS-CoV-2 variants emerge, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) classifies them in three categories: variants of high consequence, variants of concern, and variants of interest. These categories are based on how the viral mutations affect COVID-19 transmission, prevention, detection, and disease severity.

SARS-CoV-2 variants have mutations within the gene encoding for the Spike (S) protein, which facilitates viral entry by binding to host receptors. Interactions between these spike protein variants and host receptors like ACE2, Basignin, and GRP-78 occur through the S protein's receptor binding domain (RBD).

Learn more about SARS-CoV-2 and spike protein variants in our blog post SARS-CoV-2 Variants: An Emerging Landscape of Therapeutic Targets.

SARS-CoV-2 Variants and their respective mutations

NTD= n-terminal domain, RBD= receptor binding domain, CTD=c-terminal domain.

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Spike Protein Variants


  • HEK293 cell derived
  • Purified proteins difficult to find on the market
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Variants from

  • Brazil
  • Denmark
  • South Africa
  • United Kingdom
  • India
  • Peru
  • Columbia