C-Series: Membrane-Based Antibody Arrays

Semi-Quantitative, Sandwich-Based, Membrane Antibody Arrays

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C-Series Membrane-based Antibody Array

The RayBio® Membrane-Based Antibody Arrays (C-Series) are tools for screening and comparing expression levels of many cytokines, growth factors, proteases, soluble receptors, and other proteins in a wide variety of sample types.

The C-Series Arrays utilize the sandwich immunoassay principle, wherein a panel of capture antibodies is printed on a nitrocellulose membrane solid support (usualy 2.5 cm x 3 cm). The array membranes are processed similarly to a Western blot (chemiluminescent readout). Signals are then visualized on x-ray film or a digital image, allowing densitometry data collection and calculation of fold-changes for each detected protein. The entire procedure can be completed in 1 day, and is simple enough to permit even the novice researcher to successfully collect data with very few pitfalls and little or no optimization.

Many biological processes such as apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, immune response and migration often accompany changes of cytokine expression levels. Because of the extensive cross-talk between cytokines, a complete analysis of biological responses and functions must be obtained through multiplex assays. The C-Series Antibody Arrays allow a much broader view of protein activity than can be obtained with single-target ELISAs and Western blots. Moreover, antibody array screening improves the chances for discovering key factors, disease mechanisms or biomarkers related to cytokine signaling.

A variety of C-Series array kits are available in-stock, detecting anywhere from 10 to 274 proteins simultaneously.

For a comparison & overview of all our antibody array systems, click here.

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  • Simultaneous detection of multiple proteins
  • High specificity (sandwich antibody pair used)
  • High sensitivity (pg/ml levels)
  • No dedicated equipment required; compatible with any chemiluminescent imaging system
  • Easy to use, no training required
  • Results can be obtained in 1 day

Contents of Kit

  • RayBio® Antibody Array Membranes
  • Biotinylated Detection Antibody Cocktail
  • Blocking Buffer
  • Wash Buffers 1 and 2
  • Cell & Tissue Lysis Buffer
  • Detection Buffers C and D
  • Plastic Incubation Tray
  • Protease Inhibitor Cocktail (in select kits)
  • Manual

How It Works

C-Series Antibody Arrays: How it works

Research Applications

  • High-throughput profiling of cytokine expression
  • Identifying potential molecular targets for drug development
  • Identifying the molecular mechanisms of drug action
  • Identifying crucial factors involved in disease processes
  • Discovering biomarkers for disease management
  • Discovering expression patterns for molecular classification of diseases

Technical Notes

Comparison to ELISA

  • More Data, Less Sample: Antibody arrays provide high-content screening using about the same sample volume as for ELISA.
  • Global View of Cytokine Expression: Antibody array screening improves the chances for discovering key factors, disease mechanisms or biomarkers related to cytokine signaling.
  • Greater Sensitivity: As little as 4 pg/ml of MCP-1 can be detected using the C-Series array format. In contrast, our similar MCP-1 ELISA assay has a sensitivity of 40 pg/ml of MCP-1.
  • Increased Range of Detection: ELISA assays typically detect a concentration range of 100- to 1000-fold, however, RayBiotech arrays can detect IL-2 at concentrations of 25 to 250,000 pg/ml, a range of 10,000-fold.
  • Better Precision: As determined by densitometry, the inter-array Coefficient of Variation (CV) of spot signal intensities is 5-10%, comparing favorably with ELISA testing (CV = 10-15%).


  • High Sensitivity: Can detect as low as 1 pg/ml for some proteins.
  • Positive control spots: To orientate each membrane, monitor the detection steps, and normalize the results.
  • High Reproducibility: Inter-array Coefficient of Variation (CV) of spot signal intensities as low as 5% when run under optimal conditions.
  • High Specificity: A recombinant protein for each corresponding antibody spot is tested to ensure that only one particular spot is visible after hybridization.
  • High Quality: Many antibody pairs are tested for each detectable protein target but only the pairs which show the strongest affinity and sensitivity are selected for the array.
  • Wide Dynamic Range: A detectable range as high as 4 orders of magnitude (104) for some proteins.
  • Proven Technology: There are hundreds of publications using C-Series antibody arrays.
  • Robust Data Output: Each antibody is printed in duplicate providing multiple data points for each detected protein target.
  • Small Membrane Size: Average membrane dimensions only  2.5 X 3.0 cm
  • Duplicate Spots: The antibodies printed on the C-Series arrays are spotted in duplicate, decreasing the number of samples needed to run, saving precious sample volume while still allowing for robust data output.
  • Negative Control and Blank spots: To assess baseline and background responses.

Sample Images

IL-6 Membrane Image


  • Che G., Wang Y., Zhou B., et al. Knockdown of Heparanase Suppresses Invasion of Human Trophoblasts by Activating p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway. Dis Markers. 2018 Apr 17;2018:7413027. doi: 10.1155/2018/7413027. [view publication]
    Product: Human/Mouse MAPK Phosphorylation Array
    Sample Type: Cell Lysate
  • Chien YC., Liu LC., Ye HY., et al. EZH2 promotes migration and invasion of triple-negative breast cancer cells via regulating TIMP2-MMP-2/-9 pathway. Am J Cancer Res. 2018; 8(3): 422–434.PMCID: PMC5883093 [view publication]
    Product: Human MMP Array C1
    Sample Type: Conditioned Media
  • Drolia R., Tenguria S., Durkes A., et al. Listeria Adhesion Protein Induces Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction for Bacterial Translocation. Cell Host Microbe. 2018 Apr 11;23(4):470-484.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2018.03.004. [view publication]
    Product: Human Inflammation Array C3
    Sample Type: Conditioned Media
  • Jin YP., Hu YP., Wu XS., et al. miR-143-3p targeting of ITGA6 suppresses tumour growth and angiogenesis by downregulating PLGF expression via the PI3K/AKT pathway in gallbladder carcinoma. Cell Death Dis. 2018 Feb; 9(2): 182. 2018 Feb 7. doi: 10.1038/s41419-017-0258-2 [view publication]
    Products: Human Angiogenesis Array C1 | Human Angiogenesis Array C1000 | Human Angiogenesis Array C2
    Sample Type: Conditioned Media
  • Lee E., Hwang I., Lee J., et al. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Improves the Therapeutic Efficacy of Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells via RAD51. Mol Ther. 2018 Mar 7;26(3):845-859. doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2017.12.015. [view publication]
    Product: Human Growth Factor Array C1
    Sample Type: Conditioned Media
  • Lietman C., Wu B., Lechner S., et al. Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling ameliorates osteoarthritis in a murine model of experimental osteoarthritis. JCI Insight. 2018 Feb 8;3(3). pii: 96308. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.96308 [view publication]
    Product: Human Cytokine Array C5
    Sample Type: Conditioned Media
  • Liu C., Choi M., Li X., et al. Immunomodulatory effect of structurally-characterized mushroom sclerotial polysaccharides isolated from Polyporus rhinocerus on human monoctyes THP-1. Journal of Functional Foods Volume 41, February 2018, Pages 90-99. doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2017.12.039 [view publication]
    Product: Human Cytokine Array C3
    Sample Type: Conditioned Media
  • Man S., Zhang L., Cui J., et al. Curcumin enhances the anti-cancer effects of Paris Saponin II in lung cancer cells. Cell Prolif. 2018 Apr 2:e12458. doi: 10.1111/cpr.12458. [view publication]
    Product: Custom C-Series Human Array
    Sample Type: Cell Lysate
  • Oo A., Rausalu K., Merits A., et al. Deciphering the potential of baicalin as an antiviral agent for Chikungunya virus infection. Antiviral Res. 2018 Feb;150:101-111. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2017.12.012. [view publication]
    Product: Human Apoptosis Array C1
    Sample Type: Cell Lysate
  • Rojewska E., Zychowska M., Piotrowska A., et al. Involvement of Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1 Family Members in the Development of Diabetic Neuropathy and Their Contribution to Effectiveness of Morphine. Front Immunol. 2018 Mar 12;9:494. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00494. [view publication]
    Product: Mouse Inflammation Array C1
    Sample Type: Tissue Lysate
  • Ruiz-Saenz A., Dreyer C., Campbell M., et al. HER2 amplification in tumors activates PI3K/Akt signaling independent of HER3. Cancer Research, epub online 2018, doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-0430 [view publication]
    Product: Human EGFR Phosphorylation Array C1
    Sample Type: Cell Lysate
  • Shang T., Yao B., Gao D., et al. A novel model of humanised keloid scarring in mice. Int Wound J. 2018 Feb;15(1):90-94. doi: 10.1111/iwj.12838. [view publication]
    Products: Human Cytokine Array C2000 | Human Cytokine Array C6 | Human Cytokine Array C7 | Human Cytokine Array C8
    Sample Type: Conditioned Media
  • Tang Q., Wang Y., Ma L., et al. Peiminine serves as an adriamycin chemosensitizer in gastric cancer by modulating the EGFR/FAK pathway. Oncol Rep. 2018 Mar;39(3):1299-1305. doi: 10.3892/or.2018.6184. [view publication]
    Product: Human EGFR Phosphorylation Array C1
    Sample Type: Cell Lysate
  • Wang X., Zhang M., Ping F., et al. Identification and therapeutic intervention of coactivated anaplastic lymphoma kinase, fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, and ephrin type-A receptor 5 kinases in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2018 Jan 21. doi: 10.1002/hep.29792. [view publication]
    Product: Human EGFR Phosphorylation Array C1
    Sample Type: Cell Lysate
  • Yu S., Zhong Q., Chen R., et al. CRLF1 promotes malignant phenotypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma by activating the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways. Cell Death Dis. 2018 Mar 7;9(3):371. doi: 10.1038/s41419-018-0352-0. [view publication]
    Product: Human/Mouse MAPK Phosphorylation Array
    Sample Type: Cell Lysate

More references are listed per product on the individual product pages.