COVID-19 Proteins

Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Proteins

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is responsible for COVID-19, is comprised of nearly 30 proteins, including the Spike and Nucleocapsid proteins (see figures below). RayBiotech offers a comprehensive catalog of recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteins.

SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein (S-Protein)
Figure 1. SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) protein domains. The virus gains entry into host cells through the interaction between the Spike protein’s receptor binding domain (RBD) and the host’s ACE2 receptor (cat no. 230-30165, 230-30177). The numbers below the domains show the amino acid position.
SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein (N-Protein)
Figure 2. SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid protein domains.
RBD = RNA binding domain; IDR = intrinsically disordered region; SR = serine-arginine-rich; NLS = nuclear localization signal.

Other Coronavirus Proteins

Like SARS-CoV-2, other coronaviruses can cause respiratory tract infections, including SARS-CoV, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and the human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1).

Host Receptors

Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an endogenous receptor that is required for SARS-CoV-2 viral entry. Other host receptors, Neuropilin-1 (NRP1), Tyrosine Kinase Receptor UFO (AXL), Basignin (or CD147), and Heat Shock Protein Family A Member 5 (GRP-78) have also been demonstrated to assist in SARS-CoV-2 entry.

Thrombosis-related Protein Biomarkers

The inflammation associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC), leading to obstruction of the blood vessels of lung, heart and kidneys. Initially, DIC in COVID-19 patients presents with abnormalities in prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and platelet counts.

For help identifying the right protein for your research, please contact our technical support team at [email protected] or (888) 494-8555.

COVID-19 Biology 101

Learn about the roles that SARS-CoV-2 proteins and endogenous proteins play in COVID-19 infection in our blog.

Top Product References

  1. Antonopoulos A, et al. Site-specific characterisation of SARS-CoV-2 spike glyocprotein receptor binding domain. Glycobiology, cwaa085 (2020). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike RBD
  2. Beltrán-Pavez C, et al. Insights into neutralizing antibody responses in individuals exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in Chile. Science Advances (2021). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike RBD
  3. Borchers C, et al. Evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein response on PI3K-mediated IL-8 release. Med Sci (Basel) 18;9(2):30 (2021). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike RBD
  4. Bortolotti D, et al. SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 protein controls natural killer cell activation via the HLA-E/NKG2A pathway. Cells (2020). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike Subunit 1, Spike Subunit 2
  5. Bray RA, et al. Development and validation of a multiplex, bead-based assay to detect antibodies directed against SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Buzhdygan TP, et al. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein alters barrier function in 2D static and 3D microfluidic in-vitro models of the human blood-brain barrier. Neurobiol Dis. 146: 105131 (2020). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike Subunit 1 (cat no. 230–01101, 230–30161), Spike RBD, Spike Subunit 2
  6. Casasanta M, et al. Microchip-based structure determination of low-molecular weight proteins using cryo-electron microscopy. Nanoscale (2021). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Nucleocapsid
  7. Hudák A, et al. Contribution of Syndecans to the Cellular Entry of SARS-CoV-2. Int J Mol Sci (2021). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike Subunit 1
  8. Keshavarz B, et al. Quantitative measurement of IgG to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 proteins using immunoCAP. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 182(5):417-424 (2021). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike RBD, Nucleocapsid
  9. Khan S, et al. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein induces inflammation via TLR2-dependent activation of the NF-kB pathway. bioRxiv: the preprint server for biology (2021). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike Subunit 1, Spike Subunit 2, Nucleocapsid
  10. Miller CJ, et al. FN3-based monobodies selective for the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. N Biotechnol (2021). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike RBD
  11. Nguyen-Contant P, et al. S Protein-Reactive IgG and Memory B Cell RayBiotech Proteinion after Human SARS-CoV-2 Infection Includes Broad Reactivity to the S2 Subunit. mBio. 11 (5) e01991-20 (2020). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Nucleocapsid
  12. Norman M, et al. Ultrasensitive high-resolution profiling of early seroconversion in patients with COVID-19. Nat Biomed Eng (2020). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Nucleocapsid
  13. Prompetchara E, et al. DNA vaccine candidate encoding SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins elicited potent humoral and Th1 cell-mediated immune responses in mice. PLOS ONE 16(3): e0248007 (2021). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike Subunit 1, Spike Subunit 2
  14. Rhea EM, et al. The S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 crosses the blood-brain barrier in mice. Nature Neuroscience, 24 (2021). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike Subunit 1
  15. Shajahan A, et al. Deducing the N- and O- glycosylation profile of the spike protein of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Glycobiology, cwaa042 (2020). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike Subunit 1 (supernatant), Spike Subunit 2 (supernatant), Spike Subunit 2
  16. Suzuki YJ, et al. SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated cell signaling in lung vascular cells. Vascul Pharmacol, 137 (2021). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike Subunit 1, Spike RBD
  17. Vojdani A and Kharrazian D. Potential antigenic cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and human tissue with a possible link to an increase in autoimmune diseases. Clin Immunol. 217, 108480 (2020). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike Subunit 1, Nucleocapsid
  18. Vojdani A, et al. Reaction of human monoclonal antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 proteins with tissue antigens: implications for autoimmune diseases. Front Immunol (2021). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike Subunit 1, Nucleocapsid
  19. Woodruff M, et al. Extrafollicular B cell responses correlate with neutralizing antibodies and morbidity in COVID-19. Nature Immunology (2020). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Nucleocapsid
  20. Yu J, et al. Direct activation of the alternative complement pathway by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is blocked by factor D inhibition. Blood. 2020 Sep 2;blood.2020008248 (2020). [view publication]
    RayBiotech Protein: Spike RBD, Spike Subunit 2, Nucleocapsid